Fast Facts: Obesity and Health

Type 2 Diabetes

Heart Disease and Stroke

Cancer

Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases

Kidney Disease

Liver Disease

Arthritis

HIV/AIDS

Obesity and Children's Health

Maternal Health and Obesity

Notes

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.

2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.

3 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2010). Number of Americans with diabetes projected to double or triple by 2050. [Press Release] (accessed March 2011).

4 Total Prevalence of Diabetes & Prediabetes. In American Diabetes Association (accessed April 2008).

5 Total Prevalence of Diabetes & Prediabetes. In American Diabetes Association (accessed April 2008).

6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.

7 American Diabetes Association. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care, 36: 1033-1046, 2013.

8 Do You Know the Health Risks of Being Overweight? In National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (accessed April 2007).

9 The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care, 25(12): 2165-71, 2002.

10 American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2006 Update. Dallas: American Heart Association, 2006.

11 Obesity Facts and Resources. In Campaign to End Obesity (accessed September 2013).

12 Hoyert DL and Xu J. Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports, 61(6), 2012.

13 What are the Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity? In National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (accessed May 14, 2010).

14 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Physical Activity and Fitness - Improving Health, Fitness, and Quality of Life through Daily Physical Activity. Prevention Report, 16(4): 1-15, 2002 (accessed May 2008).

15 Kochanek KD, Xu J, Murphy SL, et al. Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2009. National Vital Statistics Reports, 59(4), 2011.

16 Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(17): 1625-38, 2003.

17 Physical Activity and Cancer. In National Cancer Institute (accessed April 2013).

18 Friednenreich, CM et al. Inflammatory marker changes in a yearlong randomized exercise intervention trial among postmenopausal women. Cancer Prevention Research, 5(1): 98-108, 2012.

19 Beydoun et al. Obesity and Central Obesity as Risk Factors for Incident Dementia and Its Subtypes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Obesity Reviews, 9(3): 204-218, 2008.

20 Xu WL, Atti AR, Gatz M, et al. Midlife overweight and obesity increases late-life dementia risk: A population-based twin study. Neurology, 76(18): 1568-1574, 2011.

21 Petry NM, Barry D, Pietrzak RH, Wagner JA. Overweight and Obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosom Med,70:288-97, 2008.

22 Petry NM, Barry D, Pietrzak RH, Wagner JA. Overweight and Obesity are associated with psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosom Med,70:288-97, 2008.

23 Wang Y, Chen X, Song Y, Caballero B, Cheskin LJ. Association between Obesity and Kidney Disease. Kidney International, 73: 19-33, 2008.

24 Wang Y, Chen X, Song Y, Caballero B, Cheskin LJ. Association between Obesity and Kidney Disease. Kidney International, 73: 19-33, 2008.

25 Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. In National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) (accessed March 2010).

26 Felson DT and Zhang Y. An Update on the Epidemiology of Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis with a View to Prevention. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 41(8):1343-55, 1998.

27 NHIS Arthritis Surveillance. In U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (accessed June 2008).

28 Messier SP, Gutekunst DJ, Davis C, deVita P. Weight loss reduces knee-joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 52(7): 2026-32, 2005.

29 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State-specific prevalence of no leisure time physical activity among adults with and without doctor-diagnosed arthritis. MMWR, 60(48): 1641-1645, 2011.

30 Crum-Cianflone NF, Roediger M, Eberly LE, et al. Obesity among HIV-infected Persons: Impact of Weight on CD4 Cell Count. AIDS (epub ahead of print): 2010.

31 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among us children and adolescents, 1999-2010. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(5):483-490, 2012.

32 Spalding KL, Arner E, Westermark PO, et al. Dynamics of Fat Cell Turnover in Humans. Nature, 453(7196): 783-7, 2008.

33 Wang LY, Chyen D, Lee S, et al. The Association Between Body Mass Index in Adolescence and Obesity in Adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(5): 512-518, 2008.

34 Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Excess Adiposity among Overweight Children and Adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatrics, 150(1): 12-17, 2007.

35 Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Excess Adiposity among Overweight Children and Adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatrics, 150(1): 12-17, 2007.

36 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of Abnormal Lipid Levels Among Youths - United States, 1999-2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(2): 29-33, 2010.

37 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of Abnormal Lipid Levels Among Youths - United States, 1999-2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(2): 29-33, 2010.

38 Gilliland F, Berhane K, Islam t, et al. Obesity and the Risk of Newly Diagnosed Asthma in School-Age Children. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(5): 406-15, 2003.

39 Liu PC, Kieckhefer GM, Gau BS. A systematic review of the association between obesity and asthma in children. J Adv Nurs, doi: 10.1111/jan.12129, 2013.

40 Redline S, Tishler P, Schluchter M, et al. Risk Factors for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children: Associations with Obesity, Race and Respiratory Problems. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159(5): 1527-32, 1999.

41 Trust for America's Health. Healthy Women: The Path to Healthy Babies: The Case for Preconception Care. Washington, D.C.: TFAH, 2008.

42 Maternal and Infant Health Research: Pregnancy Complications. In U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (accessed March 2011).

43 Haeri S, Guichard I, Baker AM, et al. The Effect of Teenage Maternal Obesity on Perinatal Outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 113(2): 300-4, 2009.

44 Chu SY, Bachman DJ, Callaghan WM, et al. Association Between Obesity During Pregnancy and Increased Use of Healthcare. New England Journal of Medicine, 358(14): 1444-53, 2008.

45 Chu SY, Bachman DJ, Callaghan WM, et al. Association Between Obesity During Pregnancy and Increased Use of Healthcare. New England Journal of Medicine, 358(14): 1444-53, 2008.